Never use inside of if statements or for loops.


Allows for using state without class components.

const [isToggled, setIsToggled] = useState(false);

You pass the default and you are provided the state as well as a function to update the state.


This is for performing side effects in function components. This happens after a component renders. If your component needs cleaning up it'll return a function.

From the docs:

If you’re familiar with React class lifecycle methods, you can think of useEffect Hook as componentDidMount, componentDidUpdate, and componentWillUnmount combined.

const [time, setTime] = useState(new Date());

useEffect(() => {
  const timer = setTimeout(setTime(newDate()), 1000);
  // this next part is for cleanup. It takes the place of `componentWillUnmount`
  // Return a function that cleans up your effect.
  return () => clearTimeout(timer);


A hook that gives us access to the Context API.

const value = useContext(MyContext);

This allows us to read the context, but not provide it. We still need <MyContext.Provider> in the tree above.


Similar in function to Redux. You pass this hook a reducer function as well as your initial state.


const refContainer = useRef(initialValue);

Returns a mutable ref object where .current is initialized to initialValue.

You can use it to reference DOM elements and always get the current element.

You can use it for more than just referencing the DOM though. The ref object is a generic container. You can use it to set/unset timers and intervals.


Reminder: Reducers take in an old state, perform an action, and return a new state.

useReducer takes the reducer function and initial state. It's an alternative to useState, especially for more complex state.

const [state, dispatch] = useReducer(reducer, initialArg, init);

This is a lot like redux. You might have a reducer function like this, which takes in current state and an action.

function reducer(state, action) {
  switch (action.type) {
    case "increment":
      return { count: state.count + 1 };
    case "decrement":
      return { count: state.count - 1 };
    case "reset":
      return init(action.payload);
      throw new Error();

We have init, which can be an object or function, which just returns the initial state. If it's a function it will create the initial state lazily.

function init(initialCount) {
  return { count: initialCount };

Then we declare our useReducer which gives us our state object and our dispatch function

const [state, dispatch] = useReducer(reducer, initialCount, init);

We can show our state in JSX:

Count: {

And we can add dispatch functions to our buttons as click handlers. Remember, the dispatch function takes an action object.

<button onClick={() => dispatch({ type: "increment" })}>+</button>


This seems to be a good alternative to useMemo and works in conjunction with a memo function, but I don't fully get it yet. Partly confusing because the docs say

useCallback(fn, deps) is equivalent to useMemo(() => fn, deps).

I get this now. The difference is useMemo will call the function you give it if the dependencies changed. useCallback gives you a new function that you can call. It gives you the function not the result.


useMemo is great for preventing something from rerendering unnecessarily. Some functions should only fire if their dependent state changes. You pass useMemo the function you want to call, and then the arguments that it should watch for changes.

const memoizedValue = useMemo(() => computeExpensiveValue(a, b), [a, b]);

In this example, this will only get called if a or b change.

React warns that this isn't a semantic guarantee and in the future this function might run even if the values weren't changed. It's better to write the code so it still works then optimize with useMemo.


Typically for manipulating the dom or getting measurements from items. It's identical to useEffect in how it takes arguments and returns functions,

useLayoutEffect happens syncronously, where useEffect doesn't. Render happens then useLayoutEffect happens.

const LayoutEffectComponent = () => {
  const [width, setWidth] = useState(0);
  const [height, setHeight] = useState(0);
  const el = useRef();

  useLayoutEffect(() => {

  return (
        onClick={() => {
          setWidth(0); // this is just to trigger a render so useLayoutEffect will run


Exposes functions to parents so they can call a function that affects the child.

Configure ESLint for Hooks

npm i -D eslint-plugin-react-hooks

then inside your eslintrc.json

"rules": {
  "react-hooks/rules-of-hooks": 2,
  "react-hooks/exhaustive-deps": 1
"plugins": [